A World From Within – Information Research


1. Core – The inner core is a hot, dense ball of (mostly) iron. It has a radius of about 1,220 kilometres (758 miles). Temperature in the inner core is about 5,200° Celsius (9,392° Fahrenheit). The pressure is nearly 3.6 million atmosphere (atm). 

2. Outer Core – The outer core, about 2,200 kilometres (1,367 miles) thick, is mostly composed of liquid iron and nickel. The iron–nickel alloy of the outer core is very hot, between 4,500° and 5,500° Celsius (8,132° and 9,932° Fahrenheit).  The liquid metal of the outer core has very low viscosity, meaning it is easily deformed and malleable. It is the site of violent convection. The churning metal of the outer core creates and sustains Earth’s magnetic field. 

3. Lower Mantle – The lower mantle is the liquid inner layer of the earth from 400 to 1,800 miles below the surface. The lower mantle has temperatures over 7,000 degrees Fahrenheit and pressures up to 1.3 million times that of the surface near the outer core. 

4. Upper Mantle (Tectonic) – The upper mantle extends from the crust to a depth of about 410 kilometers (255 miles). The upper mantle is mostly solid, but its more malleable regions contribute to tectonic activity. Two parts of the upper mantle are often recognised as distinct regions in Earth’s interior: the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. 

5. Crust – Earth’s crust is a thin shell on the outside of Earth, accounting for less than 1% of Earth’s volume. It is the top component of lithosphere: a division of Earth’s layers that includes the crust and the upper part of the mantle. The lithosphere is broken into tectonic plates that move, allowing heat to escape from the interior of the Earth into space. 


6. Hadalpelagic Zone (The Trenches) – The Hadalpelagic Zone also known as The Trench is up 11,000 meters below the surface of the ocean. The Trenches are a series of narrow, underwater valleys which due to high pressure and freezing temperatures can be only explored using specialist equipment. There is no natural light in the zone. 

7. Abyssopelagic Zone (Abyss) – Abyssopelagic Zone also known as the Abyss is up to 6000 meters below the surface of the ocean. Covered with thick mud made from the remains of dead animals, sunlight cannot reach this layer so it is pitch black and near freezing. Transparent, blind invertebrates can live at this depth. 

8. Bathypelagic Zone (Midnight Zone) – Bathypelagic Zone also known as the Midnight Zone is up to 4000 meters below the surface of the ocean. Sunlight cannot reach this layer but some light can be made from the creatures that live at this level, such as Jellyfish and Anglerfish. The Sperm Whale dives to these depths to hunt for food. 

9. Mesopelagic Zone (Twilight Zone) – Up to 1000 meters below the surface of the ocean the Mesopelagic Zone also known as Twilight Zone has only faint sun rays due to its depth. Here bioluminescent jellyfish, giant squid, and a myriad of other unique organisms adapted to live in a low-light environment can be found. 

10. Epipelagic Zone (Sunlight Zone) – Up to 200 meters below the surface of the ocean the Epipelagic Zone or Sunlight Zone as the name suggests has plenty of sunlight and heat. It is because of this, there is abundant of life in this layer of ocean. 


11. Sea To Land – This track represents the transition from the sea to land. The waves crash against the shore, as we set fourth on to a new terrain. 

12. Landscape – The Earth’s landscapes are poetic, inspiring and majestic. There is a vast range of landscapes, from the icy deserts of the polar regions, high mountains, vast arid and hot deserts, islands, and coastal environments, densely forested or wooded regions including past boreal forests and tropical rainforests. When the landscape is shaped by humans it is known as a culture landscape. 

13. Volcano – A volcano is an opening in a planet or moon’s crust through which molten rock and gases trapped under the surface erupt, often forming a hill or mountain. 

14. Mountain – Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth over millions of years. 


15. Troposphere – The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth’s atmosphere and site of all weather on Earth. The troposphere is bonded on the top by a layer of air called the tropopause, which separates the troposphere from the stratosphere, and on the bottom by the surface of the Earth. 

16. Stratosphere – Above the troposphere and below the mesosphere, we have the stratosphere. “Strat” means layer. This layer of our atmosphere has its own set of layers. There are no storms or turbulence here to mix up the air, so cold, heavy air is at the bottom and warm, light air is at the top. Contains the Ozone Layer 

17. Mesosphere – The mesosphere lies between the thermosphere and the stratosphere. “Meso” means middle, and this is the highest layer of the atmosphere in which the gases are all mixed up rather than being layered by their mass. The mesosphere is 22 miles (35 kilometres) thick. The air is still thin, so you wouldn’t be able to breathe up in the mesosphere. But there is more gas in this layer than there is out in the thermosphere. Have you ever seen a meteor shower, where meteors burn up and streak across the sky? Some people call them shooting stars. Those meteors are burning up in the mesosphere. The meteors make it through the exosphere and thermosphere without much trouble because those layers don’t have much air. But when they hit the mesosphere, there are enough gases to cause friction and create heat. 

18. Ionosphere – An interesting layer called the ionosphere overlaps the mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. It’s a very active part of the atmosphere, and it grows and shrinks depending on the energy it absorbs from the sun. Its name comes from the fact that gases in these layers are excited by solar radiation to form “ions,” which have an electrical charge.Parts of the ionosphere overlap with Earth’s magnetosphere. That’s the area around Earth where charged particles feel Earth’s magnetic field. In the ionosphere, charged particles are affected by the magnetic fields of both Earth and the sun. This is where auroras happen. Those are the bright, beautiful bands of light that you sometimes see near Earth’s poles. They’re caused by high-energy particles from the sun interacting with the atoms in this layer of our atmosphere. 

19. Thermosphere – The thermosphere lies between the exosphere and the mesosphere. “Thermo” means heat, and the temperature in this layer can reach up to 4,500 degrees Fahrenheit. If you were to hang out in the thermosphere, though, you would be very cold because there aren’t enough gas molecules to transfer the heat to you. This also means there aren’t enough molecules for sound waves to travel through. This layer of Earth’s atmosphere is about 319 miles (513 kilometres) thick. That’s much thicker than the inner layers of the atmosphere, but not nearly as thick as the exosphere. The thermosphere is home to the International Space Station as it orbits Earth. This is also where you’ll find low Earth orbit satellites. There’s a lot going on in the thermosphere! 

20. Exosphere – The exosphere is the outermost layer of our atmosphere. “Exo” means outside and is the same prefix used to describe insects like grasshoppers that have a hard shell or “exoskeleton” on the outside of their body. The exosphere is the very edge of our atmosphere. This layer separates the rest of the atmosphere from outer space. It’s about 6,200 miles (10,000 kilometers) thick. That’s almost as wide as Earth itself. The exosphere is really, really big. That means that to get to outer space, you have to be really far from Earth. The exosphere has gases like hydrogen and helium, but they are very spread out. There is a lot of empty space in between. There is no air to breathe, and it’s very cold. 

(Information notes are from National Geographic, Space Place Nasa, Internet research or written by myself)